Lecture 3 – More Common Anatomic Derivatives

Legend:  L= Latin, G= Greek

Prefix/Suffix                                        Origin/Meaning                                    Example of Usage

Cauda                                                  L, tail                                       cauda equina – structure within the lower end of the spinal cord; consists of nerve roots and rootlets.  Could this be the ‘last nerve’ our parents spoke of?  I always wondered.  (Equine – of or resembling horses)  I always thought of the nerves branching out like the hairs on a horse’s tail, when I needed to remember cauda equina.  Use every silly hint you can think of.

(Also, never rush out of an exam.  Rushing to be the first one out always seemed foolish to me.  I was always the last one out of an exam.  There will be some times when speed counts, but utilize all of the time given.  We will discuss some basic test taking strategies later in this module.)

Cervix                                                  L, neck                                   cervix of the uterus (the cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus)

Chondro-                                             L, cartilage                           chondrocyte (a connective cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix.  Cyte  or ‘kytos‘ means cell.  These cells repair damaged cartilage, for instance, in the knee.  A lacuna is a little gap or space.

Circum –                                              L, around (circle)                circumflex artery – circles the heart.  Easy!  You know so much more about your body.  We are only on the third module in this series.  Imagine the knowledge you will have by lecture 35 or 40.  Your family doctor will be so proud.

Condyle                                               G, knuckle                             humeral condyles – rounded heads (knuckles) of the upper arm bone

Coracoid                                              G, beak                                  coracoid process – a bony process projecting toward the scapula to the sternum.

Corona                                                 L, crown                                 coronary ligament – two different locations, one in the knee and the other connects the posterior surface of the liver and diaphragm.  Also from the Greek word ‘korone’ which means like a crown.  As you can see, the English language has borrowed most of its words from the older languages.  If you study Latin and Greek, you will gain a clearer understanding of English and Spanish.

Coronoid                                             L, crows beak                         coronoid process – We have one in the mandible (lower jaw- ‘manholes are low’) and one in the ulna (bone in arm, same plane as pinkie – remember ‘us’).

Cornu                                                  L, horn                                     greater cornu of hyoid – (Huge hint – cornucopias are horn-shaped baskets that hold fruit and vegetables at Thanksgiving.)  Greater cornu of hyoid – hyoid bone is small and u-shaped and located between the mandible and the larynx.  The hyoid does not articulate or touch other bones.  It is held in place by muscles and ligaments of the temporal bone, mandible, and larynx.  It has a great and a lesser horn, meaning larger and smaller.

Costa                                                   L, rib                                        intercostal – simply means between the ribs, as in intercostal muscles, which are involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing.  We also have intercostal nerves, arteries, and veins.

The body is a complex puzzle and we have many pieces to add.  There is no need to rush through the task of learning the body.  The process of learning should be life-long.  Always read and re-read your notes.  A few people have emailed us about getting copies of this material.  We have over 25 years of notes and research that we are willing to share.  Feel free to print directly from the site, if you choose.  If you become a subscriber, the data will be sent directly to your personal email address.  Thanks again for embarking upon an intense study of your body.  I hope that you will become so intrigued, that you enroll in an anatomy class at your local college.  Perhaps that will lead to a career in science or medicine.

As promised, we will give some basic pointers about taking tests.  Next to public speaking, taking tests has caused an immense amount of anxiety.  Standardized tests are known for causing people to ruminate.  Preparation is the single best way to combat test-taking apprehension, and preparation needs to be ongoing.  Listening to a song on the radio over and over is how we learn lyrics.  Learning works the same way.  Repetition is how we learn academically, as well.  Getting the proper sleep is also important.  Information is moved from short term memory to long term memory during slow wave sleep.  (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)  Cramming is only effective if you study that way every day.

Words are important.  Adding or removing one word on a test can change the meaning of a question.  Always wear a watch, but do not rush.  Decide how much time you can devote to each question by doing the math.  (Divide the number of questions by the amount of time allotted in minutes.)  In a one hour exam with 60 questions, you have 1 minute to answer each question.  Leave 10 minutes to go back to questions that were troubling.  So, you now have 50 minutes to answer 60 questions.  If you get stumped on a question, move on.  You cannot afford to sit and waste time.

Take your time and read each question.  If you cannot answer the question, place a small dot beside it, if possible and return later.  If it is computerized or you cannot write on the test sheet, use scratch paper to make a note of questions you need to re-visit.  Moving on can help.  Sometimes answers are given in later questions.  Some people say to go with your first thought, but that makes no sense if an answer is given to you later on.  Go back and change an answer if you have clear proof that you answered incorrectly.  Answer all questions in multiple choice exams.  An educated guess is better than no answer.

Now here is the best part about multiple choice exams.  You have either 4 or 5 possible answers.  If 4 answers are present, two will be wrong.  Cross those out.  One of the two left may be almost correct, but only one will be best suited for the question.  Pick the best answer of the two if you are not sure.  You have just increased your mathematical odds of getting the correct answer, by using the process of elimination.  Learn about your style of learning.  Do you learn visually, by hearing, or in combination?  Knowing what works best for you will increase your success rate.

Finally, the world is highly competitive today.  I do not advise students of any age to attempt to navigate the educational process alone.  The most talented folks do not always win today.   The winners are incredibly prepared.  Hire a professional to complete your federal financial aid forms.  Spend $200.00 or whatever the going rate, to ensure that you get the maximum amount of grants.  Enroll yourself or your child in a college entrance exam preparatory course.  Hire a consultant to help you or your child get into the educational program of your choosing.  You can afford it.  Take a look at your closet or your driveway.  Your future is too important to leave to chance.


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