Lecture 14 – Skeletal System (Cont’d)

Let’s begin with a bit of mathematical trivia.  Do you know how the search engine Google came up with its name?  Googol is the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros.  This term was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasner.  The term was popularized in the book “Mathematics and the Imagination” by Kasner and James Newman.  Google’s usage of the term reflects the company’s goal of organizing incredible amounts of information on the Internet.  (As organized as the information is, it cannot all be accurate.  Know the credentials of your sources.)  So, a googol of something is a very large quantity, sort of like a gazillion dollars.  You must be very comfortable with numbers in order to enjoy this career.  Learn the language of math.  Once you know the definitions, math becomes much more simplistic.

Maxilla – upper jaw (keystone of the face)

What is a keystone?  Or a cornerstone?  Keystone and cornerstone are used metaphorically to describe a course of action or a unit upon which all others rest.  If the keystone is removed, the entire structure will collapse.  In the Bible, Jesus is described as the cornerstone of spiritual life; all who place trust in him will never be put to shame.  Pennsylvania is considered the Keystone State, as Philadelphia was the capital of the United States before Washington, D.C.  All of the major players lived in Philly in the 1700’s, such as Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, etc.  Pennsylvania was the place of the signing of the declaration of Independence, the home of Betsy Ross, and the liberty bell.  If one was to remove PA from America, the entire historical structure would collapse.What would happen to cheese steaks, hot pretzels, and water ice, if Pennsylvania was obliterated from the earth?   Historically and spiritually, we can identify with a keystone; even if history and religion are not your favorite academic subjects.

Why is the maxilla called the keystone of the face?  All facial bones touch the maxilla, except the mandible.  There are 2 parts to the maxilla.  It has a protusion called the zygomatic process.  The maxilla has a role in forming the roof of the mouth; the anterior roof of the mouth is formed by the maxilla.

Nasal bones – 2 bones form the bridge.  We have a special place for our glasses to sit!

2 – inferior conchae – the –ae makes it plural.  This is the inferior lateral nasal cavity.

1 – vomer – on the medial nasal cavity (commonly called the septum)

Lacrimal bones – 2 of them, also, on the medial portion of the orbit.  (inferior medial orbit)

(Note: Lacrimal glands are responsible for tear formation.  It is OKAY to cry!  That means your lacrimal ducts work!)

Zygomatic bones – Form the middle aspect of the cheek bone.

Let’s review.  The whole cheek is made up of 3 bones –

Zygomatic process of the maxilla

Zygomatic bone

Zygomatic process of the temporal bone

Palatine bones – 2 of them will form the posterior portion of the hard palate (posterior roof of mouth)

Hard palate – Anteriorly – formed by the maxillary bone

Posteriorly – formed by the palatine bone

The mandible forms the only movable joint of the skull.  It is called the keystone of the lower jaw.  I am happy that this joint moves, as most of us love food.  I work very hard and treat myself to a small piece of chocolate every evening.  My motto:  “Chocolate solves everything.”  The statement is grossly incorrect, but that is my silly comforter.  Chocolate does not really solve everything, but the rewarding feeling gives me the boost I need to strategize through my problems.

By now you know that I have devoted my life to a couple of causes that have touched my heart, so to speak.  I am passionate about domestic violence prevention and women’s health.  Being self-sufficient is a great way to end domestic violence.  Many women return to violent situations because the abuser is the financial support system.  This is why I advocate for women to study hard, work diligently, and save for emergencies.  In my lectures on the nose and jaws, I jokingly say that one purpose of these body structures is to provide a nice living for cosmetic surgeons and ENT teams.  My humor can be dry and sarcastic at times.  I feel that sometimes we have to be shamed into doing the right thing.  Although we have excellent surgeons who have superior training, we should not remain in violent relationships of any sort.  It is my duty to constantly air this commercial.  Repetition works.  Pass the information on to others who need to hear my commercial.  As much as I extol the virtues of my dark chocolate comfort food, even chocolate cannot heal the physical and emotional wounds from an abuse.  Protect your body and your mind.  It is the only body that you have.  Make solid and safe choices.  Choices can be life-making or life-taking.  Do well with this new information!





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