Category Archives: Survey of Blood

Conclusion – The Survey of Blood

We are concluding the survey of human blood by leaving you with some resources to consult if you or a family member are diagnosed with a condition related to the blood.  If you would like further information on the 16-week course on blood that is taught by ACWD-MSB, call us at 609.851.1370.

We conduct an Academic Medical Ministry, which is our science outreach program that is held at local churches in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey.  The AMM outreach teaches basic and advanced science to anyone from age 12 to 99.  We offer varying levels of exposure from body basics and learning to care for your organs, to advanced classes for those aspiring to apply to nursing, pharmacy or medical school.  We even offer support to those who are in professional school and need a strong review of the sciences or assistance studying for national board examinations.  We have a multi-disciplinary staff that is comprised of many ethnic groups.  Many foreign doctors and medical students have benefited  from our vast experience.

The following site contains several pages of detailed information on blood components, diseases, and handling.  The company also offers continuing education module for healthcare professionals.  Have a productive day.

We recommend that you add this site to your favorites.  It will certainly assist you or your loved ones in the future.  Although our primary mission is to members of the healthcare community, we are committed to delivering free information to the public.  An informed patient is our best patient.  Be well.



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Lecture 32 – More Information on RBC’s

Red Blood Corpuscles – Erythrocytes (Commonly referred to as red blood cells or RBC’s)

The most numerous type in the blood –

Average 7 micrometer in diameter

Women average about 4.8 million of these cells per cubic millimeter (mm cubed, which is the same as a microliter of blood.

Men average about 5.4 x 10 to the 6th per microliter

These values can vary over quite a range depending on such factors as altitude and health.
(Peruvians, for example, living at 18,000 feet may have as many as 8.3 x 10 to the 6th RBC’s per microliter.

RBC precursors mature in the bone marrow and are closely attached to a macrophage.

They manufacture hemoglobin until it accounts for some 90% of the dry weight of the cell.

In mammals, the nucleus is squeezed out of the cell and is ingested by the macrophage.

All of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are destroyed.

No longer needed proteins are expelled from the cell in vesicles called exosomes.

RBC’s have a characteristic biconcave shape. The interior will show up on electron microscope as darkened in the center to show this characteristic. They sort of resemble a donut.

RBC’s are terminally differentiated meaning they can never divide. They live about 120 days and are ingested by phagocytic cells in the liver and spleen. Most of the iron in their hemoglobin is reclaimed and recycled. The other heme portion of the molecule is degraded into bile pigments and excreted by the liver. Some 3 million RBC’s die and are scavenged by the liver every second.

Oxygen Transport

RBC’s are responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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Lecture 31 – Blood Formation

The various types of blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. (10 to the 11th power of them each day in an adult human). Blood cells arise from a single type of cell called a hemopoietic stem cell – an adult multi-potent stem cell.
Stem cells:
are very rare; about one in every 10,000 bone marrow cells,
are likely attached by adherens junctions to osteoblasts lining the inner surface of bone cavities,
express a cell-surface protein designated CD34,
produce by mitosis, two kinds of progeny – more stem cells and cells that begin to differentiate along the paths leading to the various kinds of blood cells. (For instance, a mouse that has had all of his stem cells killed by radiation can besaved by a single dose of a stem cell.)

Which path is taken is regulating the need for more of that type of blood cell which is, in turn, controlled by appropriate cytokines and/or hormones.
Interleukin-7 is the major cytokine in stimulating bone marrow stem cells. These stem cells start down the ‘lymphoid’ path leading to the various lymphocytes (mostly B cells and T cells).
Some of the cytokines that drive the differentiation of the “myeloid” leukocytes are:
Erythropoietin (EPO), produced by the kidneys, enhances the production of red blood corpuscles (RBC’s).
Thrombopoietin (TPO), assisted by Interleukin -11 (IL-11), stimulates production of megakaryocytes. Their fragmentation produces platelets.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as its name suggests, sends cells down the path leading to both those cell types. One path or the other is taken.
Under the influence of the granulococyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), they differentiate into neutrophils.
Further stimulated by interleukin-5 (IL-5) they develop into eosinophils.
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) participates in the differentiation of most of the white blood cells but plays a prominent role in the formation of basophils, which are responsible for some allergies.
Stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells differentiate into monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (DC’s).

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Lecture 30 – Blood – Formed Elements

1)      White blood cells – leukocytes.  Leuk – means white and cytes means cells.

True cells with a nucleus.

2)      Red blood corpuscles (erythrocytes) – It is erroneous to refer to them as cells, as they have no nucleus.  Saying red blood cells is scientifically sloppy.  They are actually corpuscles.

3)      Cell fragments (platelets – come from a big cell, cytoplasm – NO NUCLEUS.

What is the proportion of formed elements to plasma?

Approximately 45% formed elements and 55% plasma.  A tube called a hematocrit is used to centrifuge and determine components of blood.

Reduced red blood corpuscles – anemia-

Types of Anemia –            Microcytic – small and few RBC’s (micro equals small and cyte means cell)

–          Hypochromic Anemia – (Remember to break down the words.  We spent several lectures on etymology.  Hypo means reduced or under capacity and cytic refers to the cell.  Review, review, and review.  There are no short cuts.  If you want to pass a test, know everything about your subject matter.)  At some level  you need to understand relationships, as opposed to wrote memorization.  Reduce hemoglobin, which is an oxygen carrying pigment that is rich in iron.  Eat well to increase iron.


What is Plasma?


90% H2O

7-9% Plasma proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, globulin)

Albumin and fibrinogen are formed in the liver.  Globulin is found in mast cells (CT cells).  Albumin regulates osmosis, maintaining a balance of water.  Fibrinogen clots blood and globulin plays a role with our antibodies.  We NEED plasma proteins.  Do well with this information.  Just like the bones, there is a massive amount of information to cover about blood.  We will take our time and delve into the subject in great detail.

Read an article in a journal regarding your academic discipline daily.  A true base of knowledge is not built overnight.  Gradually you will become an expert in your discipline.



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